Neoclassical and Romantic movements cover the period of 1660 to 1832. Neoclassicism showed life to be more rational than it really was. The Romantics favoured an interest in nature, picturesque, violent, and sublime. Unlike Neoclassicism, which stood for the order, reason, tradition, society, intellect and formal diction, Romanticism allowed people to get away from the constrained rational views of life and concentrate on an emotional and sentimental side of humanity. In this movement, the emphasis was on emotion, passion, imagination, individual and natural diction. Resulting in part from the liberation and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution, the Romantic Movement had in common only a revolt against the rules of classicism.
Neoclassicism was an artistic and intellectual movement, beginning in the mid-17th century in England, both progressive and traditional in its goal of rivaling the literary and artistic accomplishments of Augustus Caesar’s day and the classical period in general. This movement could be characterized as a religion of the head. On the contrary, Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that spread across Europe in the late 18th and early 19th century. This movement was a reaction in direct opposition to the Age of Reason in its understanding of human happiness and the means to achieve it. This literary revolution could be characterized as a religion of the heart. There are obviously a lot of distinctions between these two movements and here I am going to compare and contrast these two movements in English literature by considering the principles and writers and works of writers which exhibit these differences in both the periods.
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Much of the architecture of the French Riviera traces to the Belle Époque or “Beautiful Era” bracketed by the latter half of the 19th century and the end of World War I. (For example, the Hotel Negresco in Nice.) The period was characterised by ostentation and extravagance, evident in many of the villas and hotels of the region. Though a clearly dominant decorative and structural influence, multiple architectural styles from pre-historic times forward can be found throughout the south of France.
Paradoxically, many of the French Riviera’s most obvious examples of Art Nouveau buildings (the curvilinear, stylized designs that peaked at the turn of the 20th century), sit adjacent to the region’s significant pre-historic ruins. Some sites in the Côte d’Azur date to nomadic peoples who inhabited caves near Roquebrune-Cap-Martin as early as 950,000 BCE. An ancient fireplace near the Nice Port at Terra Amata is the oldest in Europe, dating to 400,000 BCE.
In both Fréjus and St-Raphael, Roman canals are still in use to carry water. (Anthony and Cleopatra sailed to the port of Fréjus following their defeat at Actium in 31 BCE.) The town’s Baptistry also has an excellent example of early Christian architecture dating to the 1400s. The Roman influence is also evident in Nice at the amphitheatre and baths, now also the site of a beautiful garden with panoramic views. Gothic elements are evident across the region, especially in facades, windows, and doorways, while the Cathedrale Sainte-Reparte in Nice epitomises the Baroque aesthetic.
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